Friday, July 31, 2015

How do we know Roma are from India? Linguistic Analysis.

How do we know Roma are from India? Linguistic Analysis. 

Linguistically, cultures have similar words.
Some words are older than other words.
Laptop is a new word.
Cow is an old word.

So, cultures who jointly use "Laptop" might not have a shared history.
So, cultures who jointly use "cow" might have a long shared history.

The words jointly shared by Roma and India are words such as "cow". 


31,7. 2015. Welles, Donna E. 

Thursday, July 9, 2015

Spain & Norway, Disparity in Unemployment Rates

Spain & Norway, Disparity in Unemployment Rates
By Donna Welles. 9,7. 2015.


Ancient seafaring nations, Norway and Spain occupy opposite ends of the spectrum in terms of modern Unemployment Rates. In 2014, Norway's unemployment rate was 3.5% whereas that of Spain was 26.1%. Norway is endowed with natural resources including fossil fuels and fishing reserves. Spain still trades with South America and currently holds a seat on the UN Security Council. Allow us to examine these two economies using the following indicators, (1) Population, (2) GDP, (3) Military Personnel, (4) Fertility Rates, (5) Bilateral Trade, and (6) External Trade by Product. Are we able to understand the disparity in 2014 Unemployment Rates?
Spain's population is nine times that of Norway, 46million and 5million. Spain's GDP is less than three times that of Norway. In 2000, the relative GDPs were $595billion and $171billion. In 2010, the relative GDPs were $1.43trillion and $429billion. Spain's economy has since contracted to $1.40trillion while Norway's has expanded to $500billion. What has happened since 2010 so that Spain's economy has contracted while Norway's has expanded?
Spain has a sizable pool in terms of Armed Forces Personnel, according to the World Bank's World Development Indicators Databank. Figures for both nations have declined since 2000, dropping from 241,800 and 27,000 in 2000, 220,000 and 47,000 in 2005, 223,216 and 24,450 in 2010, to 213,950 and 25,800 in 2013. Fertility rates in both nations are low. Spain's in 2013 was 1.3births for every woman and Norway's was 1.9. Norway's was exactly 1.9 in 2000 as well, whereas Spain's has risen slightly from 1.2.
In terms of external trade and in particular exports, Norway exports predominantly to the United Kingdom whereas Spain exports predominantly to France. In 2014, 23% of Norway's exports were purchased by the United Kingdom and 6% were purchased by France. The same year, 16% of Spain's exports were purchased by France and 7% were purchased by the United Kingdom. Norway exported to the United States more than they did to China; to China more than they did Spain; and to Spain more than they did to Russia. Spain exported to the United States more than they did to China; and to China more than they did to Russia.
Finally, 64% of Norway's exports as listed by the World Bank are categorized as Mineral Fuel while 9.5% are categorized as Machinery/Transportation Equipment. Other leading exports for Norway include Food/Live Animals as well as Manufactured Goods. Spain's exports are more evenly distributed, 32% are categorized as Machinery/Transportation Equipment, 16% as Manufactured Goods, 13% as Chemicals, and 12% as Food/Live Animals.
Spain's is not the only European economy to have contracted since 2007 but its Unemployment Rates are by far the worst among its cohort. 

Monday, July 6, 2015

Flow Chart, Modern Commodities Market. IMF Database.

Welles, Donna E.
6,7. 2015.

Flow Chart, Modern Commodities Market. IMF Database.


  I.            Commodities Prices
                   a.            Energy
                                       i.            Crude Oil, Petroleum
                                                       1.            Dubai Fateh, UK Dated Brent, West Texas Intermediary
                                     ii.            Gasoline
                                    iii.            Natural Gas
                                                       1.            Russia, Indonesia, United States
                                   iv.             Coal
                                                       1.            Australian Thermal, South African Thermal
                  b.            Non-Energy
                                       i.            Edibles
                                                       1.            Food
                                                                         a.            Cereals
                                                                                             i.            Wheat, Maize, Sorghum, Rice, Barley
                                                                        b.            Vegetable Oils & Protein Meal
                                                                                             i.            Soybean, Soybean Meal, Soybean Oil, Palm Oil, Palm Kernel Oil, Coconut Oil, Fishmeal, Sunflower, Olive Oil, Groundnuts (Peanuts) Oil, Groundnuts, Linseed Oil
                                                                         c.            Meat
                                                                                             i.            Beef, Lamb, Swine, Poultry
                                                                        d.            Seafood
                                                                                             i.            Fish , Shrimp
                                                                        e.            Sugar
                                                                                             i.            EU, Free Market
                                                                          f.            Fruits
                                                                                             i.            Bananas, Oranges, Copra
                                                       2.            Beverages
                                                                         a.            Coffee
                                                                                             i.            Other Milds, Robusta, Unwash Arabica
                                                                        b.            Tea
                                                       3.            Others
                                                                         a.            Black Pepper, Tobacco, Butter
                                     ii.            Industrial Input
                                                       1.            Agricultural Raw Materials
                                                                         a.            Timber, Harwood (Logs & Sawnwood), Softwood (Logs & Sawnwood), Plywood, Wood pulp, Cotton, Jute, Sisal, Wool (Coarse Wool & Fine Wool), Rubber, Hides
                                                       2.            Metals
                                                                         a.            Gold, Silver, Copper, Aluminum, Iron Ore, Tin, Nickel, Zinc, Lead, Uranium
                                                       3.            Fertilizers
                                                                         a.            DAP (Dai Aluminum Phosphate), Phosphate Rock, Potash, Superphosphate, Urea
                                                       4.            Memorandum Items
                   c.            Memorandum Items


Thursday, July 2, 2015

Iceland and the United Kingdom, Joint Economic Indicators

Iceland and the United Kingdom, Joint Economic Indicators


     Iceland's Foreign Minister, Gunnar Bragi Sveinsson, visited the United States this week. Allow us to examine Iceland's economy in terms of both its overall health as well as its bilateral trading partners.
     Although Iceland's population has grown since 2007, its economy has contracted. The United Kingdom has experienced a similar contraction, although of a smaller magnitude. Both economies have grown overall since 2000. By contrast, Norway, Sweden, Finland, and the Netherlands have experienced economic growth since 2007.
     Since 2000, Iceland's economy expanded 91% to $17billion in 2014. The United Kingdom's economy expanded 90% to $2.9trillion in 2014. Since 2007, Iceland's economy has contracted by 20% whereas the United Kingdom's economy has contracted by 1%. Norway, Sweden, Finland, & the Netherlands grew by 25%, 17%, 6%, and 4% since 2007.
     Populations in each of these nations have grown since both 2000 and 2007. Iceland's population grew 5.1% from 2007 to 327,589 in 2014. The United Kingdom's population grew 5.2% to 65million.
     Bilateral Trade with Iceland exists is two tiers. The United Kingdom and the United States are major trading partners. Total Trade between Iceland and the United Kingdom in 2014 was $890million; Total Trade between Iceland and the United States was $790million.
     A second tier of trading partners exists in the People's Republic of China, France, and the Russian Federation. China traded with Iceland $439million in 2014, France traded $385million in 2014, and Russia traded $249million in 2014. In 2000, China traded $59million, France traded $184million, and Russia traded $54million.

Iceland's Foreign Minister, Gunnar Bragi Sveinsson.
Washington, DC.
1,7. 2015. 


2,7. 2015. By Donna Welles.